The Type N 50 ohm connector was designed in the 1940s for military systems operating below 5 GHz. One resource identifies the origin of the name as meaning “Navy”. Several other sources attribute it to Mr. Paul Neil, an RF engineer at Bell Labs.
The Type N uses an internal gasket to seal out the environment, and is hand tightened. There is an air gap between center and outer conductor.
In the 1960s, improvements pushed performance to 12 GHz and later to 18 GHz. .
Type-N connectors follow the military standard MIL-C-39012. Even the best specialized Type-N connectors will begin to mode around 20 GHz, producing unpredictable results if used at that frequency or higher.
A 75 ohm version, with a reduced center pin is available and in wide use by the cable-TV industry.
These are both economical and rugged, for these reasons you will find them in a wide range of industries and vast spectrum of applications.
Integrated photonics may light the way to quantum computing
Yet, the quantum computer has always remained just out of reach because of various fabrication difficulties. For example, researchers are able to manipulate only a small number of qubits — on a scale of tens — as opposed to the required thousands or millions.
“Across all the groups in the world that are working on quantum computing, no one has developed a way to control a very large number of qubits such that you can use them to perform an actual computation of interest,” said Jeremy Sage, a member of the technical staff in Lincoln Laboratory’s Quantum Information and Integrated Nanosystems Group. “We can’t yet do anything that is both practical and better than what a classical computer can do.”
Sage and John Chiaverini, a senior staff member in Sage’s group, lead a team that is pursuing scalability by merging photonic integrated circuits (PICs) with a quantum computing method based on charged atoms, or ions, trapped above the surface of a chip. In 2016, in collaboration with MIT, the team demonstrated that PICs could be used to effectively manipulate the quantum states of ions by performing quantum gates. A quantum gate is the quantum version of a logic gate, which processes information by producing output bits (or qubits) based on inputs and a simple set of logical rules. The Laboratory team’s most recent milestone represents a breakthrough in the precise delivery of light from lasers to the trapped ions by significantly extending the range of wavelengths over which the PICs operate.
“We use lasers to rip off electrons, cool the ions down, and perform quantum gates,” Sage said. These changes to the ions that the lasers bring about are what would power the quantum computer. The ions that the team chose to use for their research are strontium and calcium, which react to specific wavelengths of light. “It turns out we need about 12 different laser colors that range from the near-ultraviolet to the near-infrared,” Sage added.
At the moment, most researchers shine lasers through windows in vacuum chambers to
strike the ions, but this approach leaves a lot of room for error. While it’s possible to hit a few individual ions precisely, scaling to the millions introduces a high probability of hitting the wrong one.
“What we’re trying to do is deliver the light in a different way by integrating the required light-delivery optics into the chip itself,” Sage explained.
“Our PICs distribute the light from several input lasers to an array of trapped ions,” said Paul Juodawlkis, assistant leader of the Quantum Information and Integrated Nanosystems Group, who leads the integrated photonics projects at the Laboratory. “At each trapped-ion site, we use devices called vertical grating couplers to redirect the laser light out of the PIC and focus it on an individual trapped ion.”
Instead of shining lasers through windows, the Laboratory team uses an optical input that is plugged into the chip. The input sends the lasers through the chip to the ion of interest via paths called waveguides that are specific to each wavelength of light. When the light has reached the area on the chip that correlates with the targeted ion, it emerges through the vertical grating coupler out of the chip and triggers the ion to change states.
The PIC technology needed to create this type of chip is already used extensively in the world of tele- and data communications. Yet these PICs are traditionally made of silicon, which absorbs the wavelengths of light required to manipulate the ions rather than allowing them to propagate through the chip.
Therefore, the research team developed alternate materials: silicon nitride and alumina. This year, they demonstrated a low propagation loss, meaning a small diminishment of the light as it is sent through the chip to meet an ion, while delivering light across a wide spectrum, from the near ultraviolet to the near infrared. The team’s work is the first-ever successful demonstration of a low-loss integrated photonics platform with light delivery over such a spectrum.
“We also demonstrated that the [vertical] gratings do indeed work,” said Suraj Bramhavar, another researcher on the team. “We are now working on ways to make these gratings more efficient so that more of the light we inject into the waveguide will reach the ion.”
“I think the ion-trapping field outside of the Laboratory is paying very close attention to what we’re doing here,” Sage said. “We are one of the leaders in this effort.”The Laboratory is uniquely capable of realizing this chip because of its expertise in integrated photonics and quantum computing, and the fabrication capabilities of its Microelectronics Laboratory.
The research team will continue working on refining the chip design and fabrication process.”There are a number of challenges that need to be addressed before a large-scale, useful quantumcomputer can be realized,” Juodawlkis said. “Estimates of when useful quantum computing will be available range from 10 to 20 years. An increasing number of groups around the world are working to solve the scientific and engineering challenges, and good progress is being made.”(July 9, 2018,/www.ll.mit.edu, Anne McGovern | Technical Communications Group)
[STUART–COAXICOM.COM] – Coaxicom, a recognized aerospace and defense supplier with customers that include NASA, and United States Navy offers innovative design and world-class manufacturing capabilities. Solely owned and entirely based in Florida, Coaxicom, inventories thousands of standard RF/Microwave components for quick assembly and immediate shipment.
And while delivery speed is important, quality is the driving force.
Coaxicom components go through quality control review not just at the end but throughout the manufacturing process. This multi-tier inspection check maintains consistent quality and product integrity that meets Military specifications MIL-PRF 39012, MIL-A 55339, MIL-C-83517, and MIL-STD-348 as applicable. Learn more about our RF Connectors.
If you’re anything like me, I’m certain you can recall your mom’s ear-splittingly shriek at one point or another … “this is why we can’t have nice things…you need to be more careful”.
The simple fact is…it’s the truth… things do last longer when we take care of them. Today, we may no longer leave our new bikes out in the rain, but what about how we treat the RF/Microwave Components we use everyday on the job!
Below are some helpful hints to treat your Connectors well so they’ll have a long, productive and reliable life.
1. Don’t use pliers on a “stuck” connector for any reason. There are wrenches for every size adapter, even SMAs bullets. If you can’t fit a wrench to your stuck connector, see below.
2. Learn how to clean connectors with alcohol and cotton swabs. Cleaning the threads is good practice, but stay away from cleaning the center conductor of an air dielectric connectors such as 3.5mm, 2.9mm and 2.4mm.
3. Learn how to gage connectors to determine if they are out of spec. One bad connector can damage many.
4. Don’t use higher frequency connector than you need. Save the 2.9mm and 2.4mm parts for millimeter-wave measurements.
5. Never use any part of a calibration kit as an adapter. Ever. If you need a special adapter, buy it!
6. Use a torque wrench. For most connectors with 5/16 inch hex nuts, use 6-8 inch-pounds. It’s OK to use less torque, but not more.
7. Don’t forget, righty-tighty, lefty-losey! The total damage done by people turning stuff in the wrong direction is second only to damage caused by klutzes who “thumb” hybrids.
8. Remember, you are not tightening lug nuts. The hardware you hold in your hands could very well be worth more than your automobile. So be gentle with it.
9. When you are tightening or loosening a connector, try not to spin the mating surfaces against each other. You should only be turning the threaded sleeve. Turning the mating surfaces means you are wearing out the connector for no reason!
(content credit: 2015, Prof. Luca Perregrini Dept. of Electrical, Computer and Biomedical Engineering, University of Pavia, microwave.unipv.it)
July 4th this year is this Wednesday. As in smack dab in the middle of the week.
And some of us lucky ones may take a few extra days to extend our holiday fun.
But the reality is… things still must get done. And nothing taints “time off” more than the stress of returning to a pile of urgent “to-do’s” and the dread of being behind schedule.
So what’s the answer?
Below are a few easy steps to ensure your mind is on family and fireworks… instead of work!
Email a RFQ’s to Dawn at Sales@Coaxicom.com today. Your quote will be waiting at your in-box when you return.
Use our instant Cable Assembly Builder Tool for standard, custom, and high-performance cable assemblies.
Sure mid-week holidays may present some challenges but with Coaxicom RF/Microwave Components, you can now concentrate on fun in the sun rather than proposals, project and postponements!
Have a great 4th of July. Happy Birthday to the U.S.A.
Today, June 27, 1990, 28-years ago, Dr. Edward J. Weiler, the chief scientist with the Hubble Space Telescope program, told reporters that the newly launched $1.5 billion observatory’s supposedly flawless 94.5-inch primary mirror had been ground to the wrong shape and was unable to bring starlight to a crisp focus…preventing the instrument from achieving optimum images in space!
Hubble’s view of the M100 galactic nucleus before (left) and after (right) repairs to correct the telescope’s deformed mirror. Photo Credit: NASA/STScI/JPL). spaceflightnow.com
In high demand since it was first developed in the 60’s, this SMA Connector was initially used for hand-held radios and antennas. However today, the demand has skyrocketed with industries such as aerospace, defense, and telecommunications requiring SMA Connectors for most of their current applications, and many future research projects.
Some of the SMA’s key attributes that appeal to engineers is its size. Compared to its predecessors such as the BNC and N types, the SMA is relatively small. This is a huge benefit when working in tight, confined spaces, a particular concern for network engineering.
The heightened popularity also stems from its reliability. While small, SMA’s are robust against vibration, repeated insertions, and harsh environments (when a proper torque wrench is used). Also available in a wide range of coaxial cable types.
SMA Straight Female 4 Hole Flange Receptacle-Probe (Passivated)
- 50Ω DC-18 GHz
- Female (Jack)
- All Stainless Steel Construction
- Manufactured per Mil-PRF-39012
- Also available in brass for commercial options
- Ask about out Non-Magnetic series
- Made in the USA
Want a quote? Email: Sales@Coaxicom.com or call 866-COAXICOM (262-9426).
See more here www.Coaxicom.com. For special offers, engineering tips, and FREE updated catalog, complete the fields below.
On June 19, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office will issue patent number 10 million—a remarkable achievement for the United States of America and our agency. More than just a number, this patent represents one of ten million steps on a continuum of human accomplishment launched when our Founding Fathers provided for intellectual property protection in Article 1, Section 8, Clause 8 of our Constitution.
Appropriately, patent number 10 million will be the first issued with a new patent cover design, which we unveiled in March at South by Southwest in Austin, Texas. It was created by a team of USPTO graphic designers including Rick Heddleston, Theresa Verigan, and led by Jeff Isaacs. Like the numerical milestone, the new cover design celebrates both how far we have come and the new frontiers we have yet to explore.
Each patent blooms from the creativity, brilliance, and determination that an inventor or a team of inventors have invested in order to bring an idea to fruition. In fulfilling our Constitutional mandate “to promote the progress of science and useful arts,” our nation has become the world’s leader in innovation. Our strong IP system has delivered 10 million patents’ worth of innovation representing trillions of dollars added to the global economy.
Patent examiners and the entire USPTO have played a vital role in every single one of these patents. So, in marking this historic occasion, we also honor and salute the public service delivered by all employees of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office now, and those of its predecessor agencies throughout our history. The work of this remarkable agency has been and continues to be critically important.
The future—the next ten million patents and beyond—is even more exciting. We stand on the cusp of truly historic times for science and technology. The USPTO is committed to encouraging and supporting future generations of inventors and entrepreneurs in communities across the nation who will lead us to ever higher achievements and development.
At this time in our nation’s history, we are proud to celebrate American innovation, the men and women who stand behind it, and the American intellectual property system which has helped fuel it all.
( by Andrei Iancu. June 14, 2018, The following is a cross-post from the USPTO Director’s Blog). Continue reading
Coaxicom Salutes the United States Army for its Service, Courage and Honor.
The Army is celebrating its 243rd birthday on June 14, commemorating the date in 1775 when the Continental Congress authorized enlistment of expert riflemen to serve the United Colonies for one year.
The new forces were comprised of 22,000 militiamen who had already gathered outside of Boston, plus 5,000 more in New York. On June 15, 1775, the Continental Congress named George Washington of Virginia as commander-in-chief and voted to raise 10 more companies of riflemen from Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia.
Washington officially took command at Boston on July 3, 1775. The original Congressional appropriation to fund the new Army was $2 million. It took another year – July 4, 1776 to be exact – for the Continental Army and the militia to become known collectively as the Army of the United States, instead of the Army of the United Colonies.
Today, the Army has about 467,000 active duty soldiers, with another 343,000 in the U.S. Army National Guard and 206,000 in the Army Reserves.
The Army’s birthday is marked with celebrations, military balls and traditional cake cutting ceremonies held at military bases and communities across the country and at overseas installations.
This year’s theme is “Over There! A Celebration of Army Heroes from WWI to Present Day.”
Interesting Army facts:
- During World War II, supporting one soldier on the battlefield took one gallon of fuel per day. Today, the Army uses more than 22 gallons per day, per soldier.
- The Army has 158 installations worldwide; more than 132,000 miles of infrastructure for electric, gas, sewer and water; and over one billion square feet of office space.
- The Army owns more than 15 million acres of land across the United States, or about 24,000 square miles which, if the Army was a state, it would be the 42nd largest.
- Twenty-four U.S Presidents served in the United States Army.
- The U.S. Army is the country’s second largest employer.
(Content credit: www.al.com, June 14, by Leada Gore)
CEO of SpaceX and Tesla billionaire Elon Musk released a new device he has dubbed “Not a Flamethrower,” a promotional item for his start-up the Boring Company.
At $500 a pop, Musk grossed $10 million for the company, whose main purpose is to lower the cost of excavation and open the way for high-speed transit tunnels.
But wait … there’s more: Musk said every buyer would get a fire extinguisher, which was going for $30 extra when the sale began on Saturday! (content excerpts by: futurism.com, fortune.com, cnn.com).
Summer S’mores anyone??